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Ben Emmerson, The UN Special Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights

Forensic Architecture in collaboration with SITU Research

Forensic Architecture Research Team:
Eyal Weizman (Principal Investigator); Susan Schuppli (Senior Research Fellow, Project Coordinator); Jacob Burns (Research Assistant); Steffen Kraemer (Researcher, Film Editor); Reiner Beelitz (Architectural Modelling); Francesco Sebregondi (Researcher); and Chris Cobb-Smith (Research Advisor)

SITU Research Team:
McKenna Cole; Akshay Mehra; Charles-Antoine Perrault; Bradley Samuels; and Xiaowei Wang

Amal Alamuddin, Philippa Webb, Annie O’Reilly, Jessica Dorsey, Sajid Suleman, Anna Bonini, Dawood Ahmed, Krista Nelson, Kristen Johnson and Matthew Oresman and all of their team at Patton Boggs, LLP, Peter Vedel Kessing, Michelle Lesh, Alon Margalit, Siavash Rahbari, Jessica Corsi, Lisa Hajjar, Eliav Lieblich, Mike Canada, Joshua Andresen, Ulrike Franke, Misa Zgonec-Rozej, John Jones QC, Todd Pierce and Colleen Rowley, Iain Morley, QC, Jasmine Zerinini, Pippa Woodrow, Ella Batchelor, Rehana Popal, Nathan Rasiah, James Edenborough, Sarika Arya, Alinda Vermeer, Bridget Prince, Chris Woods, Benedicte Diot, Johanna Hortolani, Blinne Ni Ghralaigh


UN General Assembly

On 18 December 2013, following the presentation of the Special Rapporteur's interim report, the General Assembly adopted by consensus resolution A/RES/68/178 on the Protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism. Paragraph 6(s) of the resolution urges States “to ensure that any measures taken or means employed to counter terrorism, including the use of remotely piloted aircraft, comply with their obligations under international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, human rights law and international humanitarian law, in particular the principles of distinction and proportionality.”

European Union

On 25 February 2014, the European Parliament passed a resolution, by 534 votes to 49, calling for the adoption of an EU common position on the use of armed drones1. In the resolution the European Parliament:

• Concluded that “drone strikes outside a declared war by a State on the territory of another State without the consent of the latter or of the UN Security Council constitute a violation of international law and of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of that country”; expressed its “grave concern over the use of armed drones outside the international legal framework”; and urged the EU “to develop an appropriate policy response at both European and global level which upholds human rights and international humanitarian law”; and

•Called upon the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the Member States and the Council to “oppose and ban the practice of extrajudicial targeted killings”; to “ensure that Member States, in conformity with their legal obligations, do not perpetrate unlawful targeted killings or facilitate such killings by other States”; and to “include armed drones in relevant European and international disarmament and arms control regimes”;

• Urged the Council to adopt an EU common position on the use of armed drones; and

• Called upon the EU “to promote greater transparency and accountability on the part of third countries in the use of armed drones with regard to the legal basis for their use and to operational responsibility, to allow for judicial review of drone strikes and to ensure that victims of unlawful strike have effective access to remedies”.

1European Parliament Resolution on the use of armed drones, 2014/2567, RSP, 25 February 2014, RC\1021121EN.doc.